Scientific and practical journal
Regional Economy

Regional Economy -- Year 2023, Issue 1(107)

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Regional Policy and Territorial Development

Repository of Dolishniy Institute of Regional Research UDC 332.02; JEL R58, R10, F02
Storonyanska, I. Z., & Benovska, L. Ya. (2023). Nova rehional'na polityka Ukrayiny: instrumentariy ta napryamy reahuvannya v umovakh suchasnykh vyklykiv [New regional policy of Ukraine: tools and directions of response in the context of modern challenges]. Rehional'na ekonomika - Regional Economy, 107 (1), 5-13. DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 17

The experience of the new regional policy of the EU and its implementation in the domestic economy is important for Ukraine, which, on the one hand, is facing the unprecedented challenge of the war with Russia and its destructive influence on the economy and infrastructure, and, on the other hand, under these conditions has received the status of a candidate for EU membership, and has thus taken an important step towards EU membership. The purpose of the article is to research new approaches to the formation of the regional policy of Ukraine and the directions of its convergence with the regional policy of the EU. The article defines the directions of convergence of regional policies of the EU and Ukraine, namely: synchronization of development planning periods, stimulation of development of functional types of territories, common principles of regional policy formation, etc. The advantages and disadvantages of the use of regional development tools in Ukraine are analyzed, including regional development strategies, regional development agencies, typology of territories, the system of financial equalization of territorial development, etc. The peculiarities of the development of the domestic regional policy related to its implicitness, the shift of the emphasis from the regional to the local level, and the reduction of the resource and institutional capacity of the regions are outlined. The main challenges and risks of Ukraine’s regional policy caused by the war, reforms, and peculiarities of national and regional administration are defined and directions for their leveling are outlined. The article emphasizes that the prospects for the development of territories in Ukraine should be planned taking into account structural changes in the economy, business relocation, changes in the structure of population resettlement, changes in logistics chains, the permanent threat of the neighborhood with the Russian Federation, etc. The primary tasks should be the following: making changes in the strategic documents of the state and regions, creating a fund for the restoration of territories, changing the approaches to financing regional projects, and strengthening cost equalization. 
regional policy, tools, war, strategies, regional development agencies 

Repository of Dolishniy Institute of Regional Research UDC 338.24:332.142; JEL О10, R10
Posnova, T. V., & Telishchuk, M. M. (2023). Vidnovlennya rozvytku kreatyvnoyi ekonomiky v rehionakh Ukrayiny [Restoration of the development of the creative economy in the regions of Ukraine]. Rehional'na ekonomika - Regional Economy, 107 (1), 14-22. DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 10

The regional vector of creative economy development is aimed at the formation of infrastructural support, distribution of creative goods and services, and evolution of ways to attract funds. For successful competition in the internal and foreign markets, it is no longer enough for regions to have only material resources, but they must also have a strong creative potential in order to respond promptly to the challenges of the external environment. At the same time, the development of the creative economy has always been characterized by distinct regional disparities, which have become further intensified under martial law. In this regard, it is necessary to create a new regional development policy, which requires a comprehensive analysis of the current situation related to the war and its impact on the situation in Ukraine as a whole and in the regions and territorial communities. Since the industrial cities and regions of Ukraine have suffered and are suffering the greatest destruction, this significantly affects now and will affect in the future the placement of productive forces on the territory of Ukraine and will determine the possibility of people returning or not returning to these industrial cities and regions. The article considers the current state of the creative economy in the regions and the need to amend the Law of Ukraine “On Principles of Regional Policy” and the 2021-2027 State Strategy for Regional Development in accordance with Ukraine’s Recovery Plan by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. The post-war development of regional creative economy centers should take place on the basis of updated legislation on regional development. In addition, the State Fund for Reconstruction and Regional Development should be created since the reconstruction of regions affected territories requires significant financial resources, which are not available in local budgets and are quite small in the state budget of Ukraine. The restoration of the creative economy in the regions will make it possible to support their economy, stop the outflow of specialists from the country, and introduce new cultural and social initiatives in accordance with the historical and cultural context in different regions, thus reducing their imbalances. 
creative economy, creative industry, regional development, post-war recovery 

Repository of Dolishniy Institute of Regional Research UDC 332.142.2:332.05; JEL R58, O18
Melnyk, M. I., & Leshchukh, I. V. (2023). Koherentnyy pidkhid do formuvannya suchasnoyi modeli prostorovoho rozvytku ekonomiky Ukrayiny [A coherent approach to the development of a modern model of the spatial development of the Ukrainian economy]. Rehional'na ekonomika - Regional Economy, 107 (1), 23-33. DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 9

The article outlines the dominant features and tools for the application of a coherent approach to the development of a modern model of the spatial development of Ukraine’s economy, taking into account the context of administrative and financial decentralization and the post-war recovery of Ukraine. The authors offer the definition of spatial coherence of regional development as a synthetic (integral) characteristic that reveals the ability of the territorial-social system for spatial integrity, integration, connectivity, and coherence in the social, economic, and institutional plane at the local, regional, subregional, macroregional, and national levels. The article substantiates that the effectiveness and harmony of the spatial development of Ukraine are achieved under the condition of the implementation of a coherent approach to ensuring spatial cohesion and strategic competitiveness of regional development (the defining priorities of the 2027 State Strategy for Regional Development). However, the simultaneous achievement of these tasks is often difficult due to their asynchronicity, which manifests itself in the issues of approaches, tools, and mechanisms of regulation and development. This calls for the development of scientifically-based recommendations for the improvement of regional policy in Ukraine based on the search for the optimal balance and coordination of priorities (mechanisms) for the achievement of spatial coherence (cohesion, integration, and inclusion in the economic, social, and institutional spheres) and the development of promising and strategically competitive types of economic activity, which would take into account the competitive advantages of territorial and social systems and be based on the priorities of their smart specialization, ensuring in the future the increase of territorial capital and growing social, budgetary, and economic returns for the regional system in general. The subject areas of conceptual and applied tasks for the formation of a modern model of spatial development of the economy of Ukraine on a coherent basis are defined. The financial, economic, institutional, and spatial planning instruments of coherence of strategic socio-economic and spatial priorities of development of territorial social systems of different levels and the policy of integrated development of regional and local systems and coordination of strategic and spatial planning at the national level are substantiated. 
coherence, coherent approach, spatial development, regional policy, vertical coordination, horizontal coordination, communities, regions, functional types of territories 

Repository of Dolishniy Institute of Regional Research UDC 322.122; JEL R11, R22, R51
Pityulych, M. M., Krupka, A. Ya., Minkovych, V. T., & Chakiy, O. I. (2023). Determinanty rozvytku ta yikh vplyv na finansovu stiykist' terytorial'nykh hromad [Determinants of development and their impact on the financial resilience of territorial communities]. Rehional'na ekonomika - Regional Economy, 107 (1), 34-44. DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 12

The process of financial decentralization has had a significant impact on local budgets, making them independent of the state budget. This has created new opportunities for the development of territories through the implementation of specific projects that meet the needs of the community. However, the success of the viability of territorial communities depends most of all on the economic aspect. The introduction of martial law in Ukraine in February 2022 has significantly changed the living conditions of society as a whole. These conditions generate new challenges and tasks for the public and territories. It is important to find ways to adapt to new conditions, develop effective development strategies, and ensure economic sustainability. The implementation of real projects and economic initiatives aimed at supporting and developing the territories is becoming especially important. The article aims to substantiate the main problems in the financial resilience of territorial communities and to identify the main areas for improving the efficiency of attracting and using financial resources. The article argues that financial resources are the basis for the effective development and functioning of a territorial community. The authors examine the factors influencing the creation and operation of territorial communities and identify reserves of financial resilience of communities in the future. Theoretical studies related to the process of formation and development of territorial communities are analyzed. The article characterizes the capabilities of territorial communities, in particular, in terms of determining the investment attractiveness of objects on the territory, accounting for available resources and the possibility of their capitalization, use of labor resources, as well as the use of opportunities arising in the process of relocation of enterprises due to active hostilities in a large territory of the country. The authors prove the impact of migration processes on the possibilities of community development and functioning. The essence of submitting project applications for various competitions to attract additional funds to the community budget and thus form its financial resilience is substantiated. The main changes in the local budget process that arose under martial law and its impact on the development of territorial communities are outlined. 
decentralization of authorities, capacity, financial resources, territorial communities, financial resilience 

Social Policy

Repository of Dolishniy Institute of Regional Research UDC 314.72; JEL F02, J18, J48
Voznyak, H. V., Savchuk, N. V., & Kaspshyshak, A. V. (2023). Vymushena mihratsiya v umovakh viyny v Ukrayini: instytutsiyni problemy intehratsiyi do zhyttya v novykh hromadakh [Forced migration in the conditions of war in Ukraine: institutional problems of the integration into life in new communities]. Rehional'na ekonomika - Regional Economy, 107 (1), 45-54. DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 18

The war, along with the need to strengthen the resilience of communities and support the affected population, has actualized the problem of protecting the rights and guarantees of internally displaced persons and fulfilling the proper obligations of the state in the conditions of intensified hostilities in Ukraine. Therefore, the gaps in the current legislation regarding the support of IDPs’ integration into life in new communities should be analyzed and identified. The article aims to analyze the institutional foundations of the protection of the rights and guarantees of internally displaced persons and to identify the legislative “gaps” in support of the integration of internally displaced persons into new communities in the conditions of war in Ukraine. The institutional principles of protecting the rights and guarantees of internally displaced persons are analyzed. Legislative conflicts/gaps, which slow down the pace of adaptation, and thus the integration of displaced persons into the life of host communities, are identified. The study reveals that the procedure for registration/re-registration of internally displaced persons is not fully standardized; the mechanisms for obtaining financial assistance are imperfect; there is a shortage of affordable housing; it is difficult to ensure unhindered access to medical services; there are problems with the employment of internally displaced persons due to the lack of vacancies and the mismatch of their qualifications with the requirements of the labor market. The Strategy for the Integration of Internally Displaced Persons until 2024 and the plan for its implementation are analyzed. Benefits and risks are emphasized. The article argues that information activities and popularization of entrepreneurship among IDPs by conducting various educational trainings will contribute to the birth of an idea and own businesses, but financing, introduction of benefits and incentives, or material support are more effective factors in the integration of IDPs by increasing their employment. The timely introduction of a tool for monitoring the problems and needs of internally displaced persons was emphasized, given the need to improve the integration of residents into host communities. 
internally displaced persons, war, territorial communities, migration, integration 

Repository of Dolishniy Institute of Regional Research UDC 336.71:005.95; JEL E52, G21, J30, J33
Harasymlyuk, M. V., Levytska, O. M., & Sayets, I. A. (2023). Motyvatsiya personalu yak element upravlinnya diyal'nistyu banku [Staff motіvatіon as an element of bank actіvіty management]. Rehional'na ekonomika - Regional Economy, 107 (1), 55-62. DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 13

The article examines the topical issue of increasing the effectiveness of managing the motivation of bank employees. The issue of improving the work organization of bank specialists is especially relevant in view of the systemic challenges of the financial sector of Ukraine caused by the long-term negative impact of quarantine restrictions and the war. The practice of motivating personnel in the commercial bank “Idea Bank” JSC, which has been operating on the domestic market since 1991, is analyzed. The article shows that qualified employees are the main resource of the bank, and the priority of personnel management is to increase the qualification level of specialists. It also emphasizes that the achievement of the planned efficiency requires the personal interest of the specialists in the achievement of the set goals, therefore the motivational systems should be coordinated with the bank’s development strategy and the motivational expectations of the staff. Recommendations on motivation management and the implementation of adequate motivation systems are developed to ensure an increase in the efficiency of staff work. A motivation technology based on a comprehensive assessment of key performance indicators is proposed, which allows for rational distribution of labor costs depending on the contribution of each specialist. The largest contribution to the bank’s financial result belongs to the branches of corporate and retail service. To identify the contribution of each specialist to the financial result, the centers of responsibility for income and profit are recommended to be allocated, and an indicative analysis within each position using transparent mechanisms for differentiating the evaluated indicators should be carried out. Classification of specialists into the groups “best employee”, “key employee”, “needs improvement”, and “candidate for dismissal” will allow to determine the level of material remuneration of specialists according to objective criteria and will contribute to the development of personnel. The application of the proposed methodology in the system of motivation of specialists in the retail sector of the bank will contribute to the prompt adjustment of the practice of managing personnel development and optimization of business processes. 
motіvatіonal system, key performance іndіcators, labor remuneratіon, center of responsіbіlіty, personalіzatіon of results 

Repository of Dolishniy Institute of Regional Research UDC 377.44.56; JEL I20, O15
Sembay, N. M. (2023). Napryamy pokrashchennya yakosti pidhotovky kadriv kharchovoyi promyslovosti Ukrayiny v suchasnykh umovakh [Directions for improving the quality of training in the food industry of Ukraine in modern conditions]. Rehional'na ekonomika - Regional Economy, 107 (1), 63-75. DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 23

Today’s food industry is characterized by growing competition, rapid technological changes, and shifting consumer habits. This requires the industry to train personnel who are competent in modern technologies, trends, and marketing strategies. Consumers are becoming increasingly aware of food quality and safety. Customers demand high quality products made with natural ingredients and in compliance with food safety standards. Therefore, training personnel who adhere to high quality and safety standards is extremely important. The article aims to study the processes of improving the quality of training of managerial and scientific personnel for the food industry of Ukraine. The article suggests the priorities for improving the quality of training of highly qualified (managerial, scientific) personnel for the food industry of Ukraine. They are defined in connection with the imperatives of recovery, innovative sustainability, and economic European integration of the Ukrainian food industry. The imperatives are determined by analyzing the consequences of a full-scale war for the industry, which confirmed its ability to be a leader in the recovery of the manufacturing industry and a driver of the development of an innovative and sustainable post-war economy. Recommendations are formulated in the following areas: development of modern skills of highly qualified personnel – soft, technical, transferable skills that complement basic hard skills; provision of educational services for foreign students; development of research infrastructure. The priorities for improving the quality of training of highly qualified personnel for the food industry of Ukraine in the context of the imperatives of recovery, innovative sustainability, and economic European integration of the industry are offered. 
food industry, public policy, personnel training, state regulation, education 

Economics and National Economy Management

Repository of Dolishniy Institute of Regional Research UDC 338.24.01; JEL E22, C67, O40
Shults, S. L., Lutskiv, O. M., & Habrel, M. S. (2023). Metodychni pidkhody do otsinyuvannya produktyvnoyi spromozhnosti rehioniv: sektoral'nyy pidkhid [Methodological approaches to the assessment of regional productive capacity: the sectoral approach]. Rehional'na ekonomika - Regional Economy, 107 (1), 76-87. DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 19

Productivity is an indicator of economic efficiency, the use of territorial resources, and the quality of life of the population. The stagnation of economic productivity reflected in the decline in annual growth rates of such partial indicators as labor and capital productivity has been a peculiar trend in Ukraine for many years. The article aims to analyze and systematize methodological approaches to the assessment of the productive capacity of economic sectors. The article analyzes, compares, and systematizes the methodological approaches to the assessment of the productive capacity of economic sectors. It is worth mentioning the lack of a single methodological approach to the assessment of the productive capacity of economic sectors. Moreover, each of the analyzed approaches involves a different set of indicators and analytical tools. Their main advantages and certain disadvantages are identified. In particular, the authors analyze the European and global experience in assessing the productive capacity of the economy. This methodology envisages the use of three areas of measurement of productive capacity, namely: structural-sectoral, spatial-sectoral, and innovation-sectoral. The main processes that American and European scholars focus on when studying economic productivity are highlighted. The article emphasizes the priority of certain factors in increasing the productivity of economic sectors: innovation and technology, capital, labor, foreign trade, etc. It presents the dynamics of Ukraine’s ratings by the level of innovation capacity in 2014-2021 and concludes that Ukraine lacks an active policy and breakthroughs in the promotion of innovation by the state and business. The list of determinants of the productive capacity of regions in the context of its structural-sectoral, spatial-sectoral, and innovation-sectoral dimensions is formed and the main directions of their assessment are determined. 
methodological approaches, productive capacity, structural proportions, reproductive processes, sectoral structure 

Repository of Dolishniy Institute of Regional Research UDC 338:332.1(477); JEL L50, O18
Ishchuk, S. O., Sozanskyy, L. Y., & Lyakhovska, O. V. (2023). Transformatsiyi u promyslovomu sektori ekonomiky Ukrayiny: rehional'nyy vymir [Transformations in the industrial sector of Ukraine’s economy: regional dimension]. Rehional'na ekonomika - Regional Economy, 107 (1), 88-101. DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 15

Industry forms the basis of the economy of all developed European countries and Ukraine in particular, as it makes the largest contribution to commodity exports and innovations, ensuring the reproduction of all other sectors and the social sphere due to the mass production of means of production and consumer goods. The purpose of the article is to identify transformations in the industrial sector of the economy of the regions of Ukraine based on a comprehensive assessment of the activity and effectiveness of its functioning in the current period and in dynamics. The results of the calculations prove that industrial production is mainly concentrated in industrial regions, which also demonstrate the highest current level of product innovation and the greatest return on investment in innovation. These regions are characterized by the highest level of production and labor activity in terms of the volume of industrial products sold and labor productivity. At the same time, during 2011-2021, the industrial potential of Ivano-Frankivska, Kyivska, and Lvivska oblasts significantly increased. Vinnytska, Volynska, Donetska, and Ternopilska oblasts demonstrate the highest dynamics of capital investments in industry during this period, while the leaders in foreign direct investments are Kirovohradska, Poltavska, and Chernihivska oblasts. Lvivska, Kyivska, Odeska, Rivnenska, and Khmelnytska oblasts have achieved a noticeable increase in the values of product innovation indicators. However, in general, innovative activity in the industrial sector of Ukraine’s economy is very low. The majority of innovations were produced in Donetska oblast. The full-scale Russian armed aggression has accelerated the transformation processes that have been taking place in the industrial sector of the national economy over the last 10 years, namely the formation of new industrial centers in Ukraine, still small in scale, but with higher (compared to traditionally industrial regions) values and higher positive dynamics of individual indicators of production, labor, and investment activity of industrial enterprises. Such “new industrial” centers are located in the western and central regions, where the largest number of enterprises from the east have relocated. 
industrial sector of the economy, regions, industrial potential, production and labor activity, investments, innovations, sold products 

Repository of Dolishniy Institute of Regional Research UDC 355/359-63:338.054.23; JEL Q10
Navrotskyy, O. A. (2023). Ahrarnyy biznes Ukrayiny: realiyi s'ohodennya [Agricultural business of Ukraine: realities of today]. Rehional'na ekonomika - Regional Economy, 107 (1), 102-109. DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 17

The world’s food security largely depends on the stability of Ukraine’s agricultural business. The study determines that during 2022, a significant number of agricultural enterprises suffered losses as a result of the armed aggression of the Russian Federation. The occupation of land, the loss of 15-20% of cattle, pigs, and poultry, and the destruction of production facilities and animal husbandry complexes led to the reduction of production in both the crop and animal husbandry sectors. The article highlights the exogenous and endogenous risks to the functioning of the agricultural sector. Internal risks include: loss of production and resource potential of the agricultural sector; liquidation of a significant number of agricultural enterprises; change in specialization due to significant economic losses; destruction of a part of the infrastructure facilities for storage and primary processing of agricultural products; difficulty in selling products on foreign markets. Exogenous risks are described, i.e. the reduction of investments in agricultural production, problems with the purchase and import of fertilizers and plant protection products, and delays in the purchase of modern agricultural machinery. The article reveals that the presence of the listed external risks will have a negative impact on the country’s economy and food security. The measures taken by the government to ensure the sustainability of agrariсultural business are described. The main problematic issues that the government needs to solve in order to ensure the stability of the agricultural business and the possibility of its further effective functioning are outlined, including the provision of conditions for farmers to carry out all the necessary field work; promotion of the restoration of the animal population and the reconstruction of livestock complexes; adaptation of the agricultural policy of Ukraine to the provisions of the Common Agrarian Policy of the EU, bringing the domestic legislation in this area into compliance with the requirements related to Ukraine’s accession to the EU; and making a decision on the extension of the “5-7-9 Affordable Loans” program and increasing the lending limits from UAH 90 million to UAH 180 million per enterprise. Solving these urgent issues will provide an opportunity for agricultural business to work effectively and fill the state treasury. 
agricultural business, risks, grain corridor, tax holidays, preferential lending 

Economics and Business Management

Repository of Dolishniy Institute of Regional Research UDC 338:005.93-049.5; JEL L23, L50
Sadura, O. B., & Pravdyvets, O. M. (2023). Ekonomichna stabil'nist' ta napryamy zmitsnennya bezpeky pidpryyemstv v umovakh suchasnykh vyklykiv [Economic stability and ways to strengthen the security of enterprises in the face of modern challenges]. Rehional'na ekonomika - Regional Economy, 107 (1), 110-118. DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 11

Achieving economic stability is one of the main challenges facing businesses in today’s unstable financial and political environment. The coordinated development and creation of a reliable and promising business climate are among the top priorities for Ukraine’s economy, which would ensure the continued functioning of business entities in the future. The article aims to analyze the economic stability of enterprises in the context of modern challenges, namely during martial law in Ukraine, and outline the main directions for strengthening the security of enterprises. The basic essence of the term “economic stability of an enterprise” is revealed, taking into account the interpretation of this concept in the scientific works of economists. The article analyzes the economic stability of enterprises in the context of modern challenges, namely, during martial law in Ukraine. It emphasizes that in addition to profitability, the economic stability of an enterprise depends on many factors that are formed as a result of financial stability and economic and financial resilience. The full-scale invasion of our country by the Russian aggressor has made adjustments to the economic stability of enterprises. The authors analyze the main problems that prevent businesses from recovering and developing during the war and point out certain conditions to which enterprises are adapting. The positive aspects on the basis of which the economic activity of enterprises is gradually recovering in certain industries are outlined. The results of the analytical report of the United Nations Development Programme in Ukraine are analyzed, and the directions for strengthening the security of enterprises in the context of modern challenges are offered. 
economic stability of an enterprise, financial stability, economic resilience, financial resilience, profitability, economic security, security strengthening directions 

Repository of Dolishniy Institute of Regional Research UDC 330.341.1; JEL O31, Q10
Zhevatchenko, V. S. (2023). Perspektyvy rozvytku innovatsiynoho potentsialu ahrarnykh pidpryyemstv [Prospects for the development of the innovative potential of agricultural enterprises]. Rehional'na ekonomika - Regional Economy, 107 (1), 119-125. DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 10

The article substantiates the feasibility of the introduction of innovative technologies in agricultural production. Scientific and technological progress promotes the introduction of modern systems in the activities of agricultural enterprises to increase their efficiency. The conditions necessary for the development of the innovative potential of business entities are outlined. The advantages that enterprises will receive through the use of digital processes are described. The problems that delay the implementation of innovations are identified: imperfect network coverage, poor mastering of computer programs by employees, lack of a single online platform, and standardization and compatibility of technologies for data exchange. Features of the Marketplace electronic platform are described, where cooperation between agricultural producers and consumers of agricultural products takes place without intermediaries. The expediency of creating a single information space of agribusiness for the purpose of information support for agricultural producers is substantiated. The article emphasizes that agribusiness successfully applies innovative new products, including complex management of equipment, system accounting of fuel, accounting of work performance, and accurate and intelligent farming. It also reveals that the application of Big Data is an important step in the systematic digitization of data, with the help of which agricultural enterprises can accumulate important information on how to conduct manufacturing and sell their products and services on the market. The authors suggest the application of Blockchain technology, which will make it possible to control the origin, quality, and environmental friendliness of agricultural raw materials and food, and will also create a significantly higher level of trust in the agricultural sector. The introduction of innovative technologies in agricultural enterprises will provide an opportunity to increase labor productivity, improve the quality of management, and accelerate the automation of production processes, which in turn will make agribusiness attractive for investment. 
innovative potential, digitization, modern technologies, Big Data, Blockchain technology 

Foreign Experience

Repository of Dolishniy Institute of Regional Research UDC 339.351.656; JEL F18, F40, Z32
Stadnytskyy, Yu. I., & Bashynska, Yu. I. (2023). Chynnyky mizhnarodnoyi torhivli turystychnymy posluhamy: teoretychni aspekty [Factors of international trade in tourist services: theoretical aspects]. Rehional'na ekonomika - Regional Economy, 107 (1), 126-135. DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 32

The article substantiates the determining influence of four basic factors of international trade: natural and geographical differences between states; differences in production costs in different countries; the effect of the country's specialization in the production of the good with a greater relative advantage; the effect of the scale of production, and the corresponding theories. All other "reasons for international trade" discussed in numerous publications are at best only modified basic ones. Likewise, these theories can be applied to the analysis and forecasting of international trade in services, particularly in the field of tourism, which is relevant for the post-pandemic development of the countries of the world. Unlike international trade in goods, which recovered in 2021-2022 thanks to strong consumer demand for products, especially in advanced economies, supported by government fiscal stimulus measures, trade in services is recovering at a slower pace. Instead, the uneven distribution of vaccines, the emergence of new COVID-19 stamps and non-tariff restrictions continued to hamper the recovery of tourism and passenger transport in the service sector. Thus, trade in commercial services grew by 16% in 2021, which is 5% below the pre-pandemic level. Accordingly, the problems of the study of international trade in services, in particular tourist services, require thorough research. The existence of four reasons determines the possibility of 15 variants of types of international trade for an individual country or between any two countries. None of the four reasons for international trade is sufficient for its emergence, since only the reduction of the "resistance of distance" in the conditions of the existence of at least one reason for international trade activates its potential. Since the international trade in services needs the basis of scientifically determined approaches to its development between countries and regions in the cross-border dimension, this article presents the main scientific aspects of the theories of international trade and makes proposals for their practical implementation in solving the problems of international trade in tourist services. 
international trade, factors of international trade, tourism services, theories of international trade, distance resistance 

Repository of Dolishniy Institute of Regional Research UDC 338.48:352.07(1-07):327.5:355.01(477:4:569.4); JEL L83, Z32
Reimann, M., Kornus, O. H., Venherska, N. S., Kholodok, V. D., Patsyuk, V. S., & Palang, H. (2023). Rozvytok turystychnoho biznesu pryfrontovykh hromad v umovakh viyny: zarubizhnyy ta ukrayins'kyy dosvid [Tourism development in frontline communities amid war: foreign and Ukrainian experiences]. Rehional'na ekonomika - Regional Economy, 107 (1), 136-144. DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 14

As a result of Russia’s military aggression in Ukraine, tourism has suffered significant losses. Tourism has ceased its activities altogether in the regions close to the hostilities or where hostilities are taking place. Therefore, it is necessary to study the foreign experience of tourism restoration and analyze the views on this issue of tourism representatives from the frontline communities. It’s also necessary to work out the author’s scientific and practical recommendations to promote further tourism development amid and after the war. The aim of the article is to study the foreign experience of tourism development in the context of post-war reconstruction and develop scientific and practical recommendations for the frontline communities of Ukraine (Zaporizka, Dnipropetrovska, Sumska, Harkivska, and Donetska oblasts) based on a sociological survey of tourism sector representatives. The foreign experience of restoring the tourism sector, in particular, in Georgia, Albania, Croatia, and Israel, is analyzed. The analysis shows that in order to develop recommendations for the frontline communities, it is necessary to have factual material about the state of tourism based on the vision of tourism sector representatives. The authors conduct a sociological survey among the tourism business owners, employees of tourism infrastructure institutions and attractions, public organizations, and government representatives, which are coordinating the tourism activities in the frontline territories of Ukraine. The state, problems, challenges, and opportunities of the tourism industry are determined on the basis of a sociological survey. Taking into account the foreign experience and the authors’ research results, the scientific and practical recommendations for the restoration of tourism in the frontline communities of Ukraine after the war are developed. The recommendations include the development of a clear plan (strategy) for the tourism restoration and promotion in frontline communities, advanced training through the study of foreign languages, digital tools, social and fundraising marketing, European experience in tourism development, building relationships with stakeholders, improvement of existing and creation of new clusters, and development of grant applications and business plans to get funding from international donors and investors. 
tourism, frontline communities, foreign experience, tourism activities, sociological survey, development prospects 

Repository of Dolishniy Institute of Regional Research (2023). Pro zhurnal «Rehional'na ekonomika» [About the journal «Regional Economy»]. Rehional'na ekonomika - Regional Economy, 107 (1), 145-146. Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].

Repository of Dolishniy Institute of Regional Research (2023). Pravyla dlya avtoriv [Guidelines for authors]. Rehional'na ekonomika - Regional Economy, 107 (1), 147-152. Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].

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